Aged: 72.1 years
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough KG Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry, or knighthood, originating in medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms; it is the pinnacle of the Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom.... (26 May 1650 -- 16 June 1722) (O.S Old Style and New Style dates
Old Style and New Style are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year has been adjusted to start on :January 1 even though contemporary documents use a different start of year ; or to indicate that a date conforms to the Julian calendar , formerly in use in many countries, rathe... ) was an English England
native_name =|conventional_long_name = England|common_name = England|image_flag = Flag of England.svg|image_coat = England COA.svg|symbol_type = Royal Coat of Arms... soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. His rise to prominence began as a lowly page in the royal court of Stuart House of Stuart
The House of Stuart, also known as the House of Stewart is an important European royal house. Founded by Robert II of Scotland, the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century.... England, but his natural courage on the field of battle soon ensured quick promotion and recognition from his master and mentor James, Duke of York James II of England
James II and VII was List of English monarchs, List of Scottish monarchs, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. He was the last Roman Catholic Church monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, and Kingdom of Ireland.... . When James became king in 1685, Churchill played a major role in crushing the Duke of Monmouth James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and 1st Duke of Buccleuch Privy Council of England , was an English nobleman. He was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and his Mistress , Lucy Walter, who had followed him into continental exile after the execution of Charles II's fat... 's rebellion; but just three years later, Churchill abandoned his Catholic king for the Protestant William of Orange William III of England
William III was a Prince of Orange by birth. From 1672 onwards, he governed as List_of_stadtholders_for_the_Low_Countries_provinces William III of Orange over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic.... .
Honoured at William's coronation, Churchill, now the Earl of Marlborough (pronounced /'m??l.b??/), served with distinction in Ireland Ireland
Ireland is the List of islands by area in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world. It lies to the north-west of continental Europe and is surrounded by hundreds of islands and islet.... and Flanders Flanders
Flanders is a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Over the course of history, the geographical territory that was called "Flanders" has varied.... during the Nine Years' War. However, throughout the reign of William and Mary William and Mary
The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England, as well as the Kingdom of Scotland, of William III of England and his wife Mary II of England, a daughter of James II.... , their relationship with Marlborough and his influential wife Sarah Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough
Sarah Churchill , Duchess of Marlborough rose to be one of the most influential women in British history as a result of her close friendship with Anne of Great Britain.... , remained cool. After damaging allegations of collusion with the exiled court of King James, Marlborough was dismissed from all civil and military offices and temporarily imprisoned in the Tower of London Tower of London
Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London , is a historic monument in central London, England, on the north bank of the River Thames.... . Only after the death of Mary, and the threat of another major European war, did Marlborough return to favour with William.
Marlborough's influence at court reached its zenith with the accession of Sarah's close friend Queen Anne Anne of Great Britain
Anne became Queen of England, Queen of Scots and Kingdom of Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding her brother-in-law, William III of England. Her Roman Catholic father, James II of England, was Glorious Revolution in 1688/9; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III & II and Mary II of England, the only such c... . Promoted to Captain-General of British forces, and later to a dukedom, Marlborough found international fame in the War of the Spanish Succession War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession was a war fought in 1701-1714, in which several European powers combined to stop a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under a single Bourbon monarch, upsetting the European Balance of power in international relations.... where, on the fields of Blenheim Battle of Blenheim
The Battle of Blenheim , fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. Louis XIV of France of Kingdom of France sought to knock Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor out of the war by seizing Vienna, the Habsburg Monarchy capital, and gain a favourable peace settlement.... , Ramillies Battle of Ramillies
The Battle of Ramillies was a major engagement of the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 23 May 1706. The encounter was a resounding success for the allied forces of the Dutch Republic, Kingdom of England, and their auxiliaries; but the battle had followed a year of indecisive campaigning in 1705 where Allied over-confidence and Dutch h... and Oudenarde Battle of Oudenarde
The Battle of Oudenaarde was a key battle in the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 11 July 1708 between the forces of Great Britain, Dutch Republic and the Holy Roman Empire on the one side and the French on the other.... , his place in history as one of Europe's great generals was assured. However, when his wife fell from royal grace as Queen Anne's favourite Favourite
In historical writings, when used in reference to a person, favourite, also spelled favorite , means the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person.... , the Tories Tory
In the political tradition of some List of countries where English is an official language, the term Tory may refer to a variety of Political party and creeds since it was originally used in the late 17th century to describe opponents to the Whig Party .... , determined on peace with France, pressed for his downfall. Marlborough was dismissed from all civil and military offices on charges of embezzlement Embezzlement
Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets, usually financial in nature, by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted.... , but the Duke eventually regained favour with the accession of George I George I of Great Britain
George I was List of British Monarchs#House of Hanover and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of Electorate of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698.... in 1714. Although returned to his former offices, the Duke's health soon deteriorated and, after a series of stroke Stroke
A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain function due to a disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. According to the National Stroke Association, a "stroke" occurs when a blood clot blocks and artery or a blood vessel breaks, interrupting blood flow to an area of the brain.... s, he eventually succumbed to his illness in his bed at Windsor Lodge Cumberland Lodge
Cumberland Lodge is a house in Windsor Great Park located 3.5 miles south of Windsor Castle.The house was built by John Byfield, an army captain, in 1650 when Oliver Cromwell divided up and sold off lots in Windsor Great Park.... on 16 June 1722.
Early life (1650--78)
Ashe House At the end of the English Civil War English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Roundhead and Cavalier. The First English Civil War and Second English Civil War civil wars pitted the supporters of Charles I of England against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the Third English Civil War saw fighting between supporters... , Lady Eleanor Drake was joined at her Devon Devon
Devon is a large Counties of England in South West England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name, rarely used inside of the county but often indicating a shire.... home, Ashe House, by her third daughter Elizabeth, and Elizabeth's husband, Winston Churchill Winston Churchill (1620-1688)
Sir Winston Churchill Fellow of the Royal Society , known as the Cavalier Colonel, was an England soldier, historian, and politician. He was the father of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, as well as an ancestor of his 20th century namesake, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill.... . Unlike his mother-in-law, who had supported the Parliamentary Roundhead
"Roundheads" was the nickname given to the Puritan supporters of Parliament of England during the English Civil War. Also known as Parliamentarians, they were the supporters of Oliver Cromwell against Charles I of England .... cause, Winston had had the misfortune of fighting on the losing side of the war for which he, like so many other cavaliers, was forced to pay recompense; in his case Â£446 18s. This severe fine had impoverished the ex-Royalist cavalry captain whose motto Fiel Pero Desdichado (Faithful but Unfortunate) is still today used by his descendants.
Elizabeth gave birth to 12 children, only five of whom survived infancy. The eldest daughter, Arabella Arabella Churchill (royal mistress)
Arabella Churchill was the mistress of James II of England, and the mother of four of his children . Arabella was the child of Winston Churchill and Elizabeth Drake.... was born in February 1649; the eldest son, John, was born the following year on 26 May 1650 (O.S). Growing up in these impoverished conditions, with family tensions soured by conflicting allegiances, may have had a lasting impression on the young Churchill. His father's namesake, and John Churchill's biographer, Sir Winston Churchill Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, Order of the Garter, Order of Merit, Order of the Companions of Honour, Territorial Decoration, Fellow of the Royal Society, Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Queen's Privy Council for Canada was a Politics of the United Kingdom known chiefly for his leadership of the United King... , asserted -- "[The conditions at Ashe] might well have aroused in his mind two prevailing impressions: First a hatred of poverty â?¦ and secondly, the need of hiding thoughts and feelings from those to whom their expression would be repugnant."
After the Restoration English Restoration
The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored under Charles II of England after the Interregnum that followed the English Civil War.... of King Charles II Charles II of England
Charles II was the Monarchy of Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, and Kingdom of Ireland.His father Charles I of England Regicide#The regicide of Charles I of England at Palace of Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War.... in 1660 his father's fortunes took a turn for the better, although he remained far from prosperous. In 1661, Winston became Member of Parliament Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a unique title, such as senate, and thus also have unique titles for its members, such as senators.... for Weymouth, and as a mark of Royal favour he also received rewards for losses incurred fighting Parliament Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England. Its roots can be traced back to the early medieval period. In a series of developments, it came increasingly to constrain the power of the King of England, and went on after the Act of Union 1707 to merge with the Parliament of Scotland and form the main basis of the Pa... during the civil war, including the appointment as a Commissioner for Irish Land Claims in Dublin Dublin
Dublin is both the largest city and capital of Republic of Ireland. It is located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region.... in 1662. While in Ireland, John attended the Dublin Free School The King's Hospital
The King's Hospital is a Church of Ireland co-educational fee-paying boarding school and day school.Founded in 1669, it is one of the oldest schools in Ireland and is located in Palmerstown, Dublin.... , but a year later, after his father was recalled to take up the position of Junior Clerk Comptroller of the King's Household Royal Household
The royal household in all the early medieval monarchies of Western Europe formed the basis for the general government of the country. In the modern period in Europe, royal households have become increasingly separate from government, where they still exist.... at Whitehall Palace of Whitehall
File:Ingo Jones drawing.jpgThe Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English List of British monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones's 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire.... , his studies were transferred to St Paul's School in London London
London is the capital of both England and the United Kingdom, and the most populous municipality in the European Union. An important settlement for two millennia, History of London goes back to its founding by the Roman Empire.... . Charles' own penury, however, meant the old cavaliers received scant financial reward, but what the prodigal king could offer -- which would cost him nothing -- were positions at court for their progeny. So it was that in 1665, Winston Churchill's eldest daughter, Arabella Arabella Churchill (royal mistress)
Arabella Churchill was the mistress of James II of England, and the mother of four of his children . Arabella was the child of Winston Churchill and Elizabeth Drake.... , became Maid of Honour to Anne Hyde Anne Hyde
Lady Anne Hyde was the first wife of James, Duke of York , and the mother of two monarchs, Mary II of England and Anne of Great Britain.... , the Duchess of York, joined some months later by her brother John, as page to her husband, James.
Early military experience James, Duke of York James II of England
James II and VII was List of English monarchs, List of Scottish monarchs, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. He was the last Roman Catholic Church monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, and Kingdom of Ireland.... 's passion for all things naval and military rubbed off on young Churchill. Often accompanying the Duke inspecting the troops in the royal parks, it was not long before the boy had set his heart on becoming a soldier himself. On 14 September 1667 (O.S), he obtained a commission as ensign Ensign
An ensign is a distinguishing flag of a ship or a military unit; or a distinguishing token, emblem, or badge, such as a symbol of office. The word has also given rise to the military Ensign , a rank of junior officer once responsible for bearing the ensign of his unit.... in the King's Own Company in the 1st Guards, later to become the Grenadier Guards Grenadier Guards
The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry.... . His career was further advanced when in 1668, Churchill sailed for the North African outpost of Tangier Tangier Garrison
Tangier Garrison was a military installation in Tangier held by the English from 1661 to 6 February 1684 when it returned to being part of Morocco.... , recently acquired as part of the dowry Dowry
A dowry is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her new husband. Compare bride price, which is paid to the bride's parents, and dower, which is property settled on the bride herself by the groom at the time of marriage.... of Charles' Portuguese wife, Catherine of Braganza Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza was a Portugal Infanta and the queen consort of Charles II of England of England, Scotland and Ireland.... . In a rude contrast to life at court, Churchill stayed here for three years, gaining first-class tactical training and field experience skirmishing with the Moors Moors
In the Spanish language, the term for Moors is Moro; in Portuguese language the word is mouro. There seems to have been some confusion about the relationship of the word moro/mouro to the word moreno , both from Greek language ma?ros, i.e.... .
Back in London by February 1671, Churchill's handsome features and manner -- described by Lord Chesterfield Philip Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield
Philip Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield Privy Council of England was the son of Henry Stanhope, Lord Stanhope and his wife, Katherine Stanhope, Countess of Chesterfield.... as "irresistible to either man or woman" -- had soon attracted the ravenous attentions of one of the King's most noteworthy mistresses, Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland. But his liaisons with the insatiable temptress were indeed dangerous. One account has it that upon His Majesty's appearance, Churchill leapt out of his lover's bed and hid in the cupboard, but the King, himself wily in such matters, soon discovered young Churchill who promptly fell to his knees -- "You are a rascal," said the King, "but I forgive you because you do it to get your bread." Churchill was known to be cautious with money: when the Duchess gave him a large sum, instead of gambling as many other young men tended to do, he invested it wisely. The incident with the King may be apocryphal (another version has Churchill jumping out of the window), but it is widely accepted that he was the father of Cleveland's last daughter born on July 16, 1672.
De Velde, Battle of Solebay A year later Churchill went to sea again. Whilst fighting the Dutch Netherlands
The Netherlands is a country that is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy. The Netherlands is located in North-West Europe, and bordered by the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east.... navy at the Battle of Solebay Battle of Solebay
The naval Battle of Solebay took place on 28 May Old Style, 7 June New Style 1672 and was the first naval battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War.... off the Suffolk Suffolk
Suffolk is a Non-metropolitan counties of England of Historic counties of England in East Anglia, England. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south.... coast in June 1672, valorous conduct aboard the Duke of York's flagship, the Prince, earned Churchill promotion (above the resentful heads of more senior officers) to a captaincy in the Lord High Admiral's Regiment. The following year Churchill gained a further commendation at the Siege of Maastricht Siege of Maastricht
The Siege of Maastricht was one of the key elements in King Louis XIV of France plans to attack the Netherlands, in order to revenge the humiliating conditions enforced on him by the Triple Alliance when he tried to fully conquer the Spanish Netherlands.... when the young captain distinguished himself as part of the 30-man forlorn hope Forlorn hope
Forlorn hope is a military term that comes from the Dutch language verloren hoop, literally "lost heap", and adapted as "lost troop". The Dutch word hoop is not cognate with English hope: this is an example of false folk etymology.... , successfully capturing and defending part of the fortress. During this incident Churchill is credited with saving the Duke of Monmouth James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and 1st Duke of Buccleuch Privy Council of England , was an English nobleman. He was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and his Mistress , Lucy Walter, who had followed him into continental exile after the execution of Charles II's fat... 's life, receiving a slight wound in the process but gaining further praise from a grateful House of Stuart, as well as recognition from the House of Bourbon House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled Kingdom of Navarre and France in the 16th century.... . King Louis XIV in person commended the deed, from which time forward bore Churchill an enviable reputation for physical courage, as well as earning the high regard of the common soldier.
Although King Charles' anti-French Parliament had forced England to withdraw from the Franco-Dutch War Franco-Dutch War
The Franco-Dutch War, often called simply the Dutch War was a war fought by the France, the Swedish Empire, the Bishopric of M?nster, the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Kingdom of England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by Holy Roman Emperor, Brandenburg and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.... in 1674, some English regiments remained in French service. In April Churchill was appointed to the colonelcy of one such regiment, thereafter serving with, and learning from, the great Marshal Turenne from whom, in Thomas Macaulay's words, he received 'many marks of esteem and confidence'. Churchill was present at the hard-fought battles of Sinzheim and Entzheim; he may also have been present at Sasbach in June 1675, where Turenne was killed.
On his return to St James' Palace, Churchill's attention was drawn towards other matters, and to a fresh face at court. "I beg you will let me see you as often as you can," pleaded Churchill in a letter to Sarah Jennings, "which I am sure you ought to do if you care for my love â?¦ " Sarah Jennings' social origins were in many ways similar to Churchill's -- minor gentry blighted by debt-induced poverty. After her father died when she was eight, Sarah, together with her mother and sisters, moved to London. As Royalist supporters, the Jennings' loyalty to the crown, like the Churchill's, was repaid with court employment -- by 1673, Sarah had become a Maid of Honour to the Duchess of York, Mary of Modena Mary of Modena
Mary of Modena was queen consort to James II of England.... , second wife to James, Duke of York.
Sarah was about fifteen when Churchill returned from the Continent in 1675, and he appears to have been almost immediately captivated by her charms and not inconsiderable good looks. But Churchill's amorous, almost abject, missives of devotion were, it seems, received with suspicion and accusations of incredulity -- his first lover, Barbara Villiers, was just moving her household to Paris Paris
Paris is the Capital of France and the country's largest city. It is situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the ?le-de-France Regions of France .... , feeding doubts that he may well have been looking at Sarah as a replacement mistress rather than a fiancée. "You say I pretend passion for you," protested Churchill â?¦ "I cannot imagine what you mean by it." However, his persistent courtship over the coming months eventually won over the beautiful, if relatively poor, Maid of Honour. Although Sir Winston wished his son to marry the wealthy Catherine Sedley Catherine Sedley
Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester, Countess of Portmore , daughter of Sir Charles Sedley, 5th Baronet, was the mistress of King James II of England both before and after he came to the throne.... (if only to ease his own burden of debt), Colonel Churchill married Sarah secretly sometime in the winter of 1677--78, possibly in the apartments of the Duchess of York.
Years of crises (1678--1700)
Diplomatic service It was not long before Churchill was awarded his first important diplomatic mission to the Continent. Accompanied by his friend and rising politician, Sidney Godolphin Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin Privy Council of England , was a leading British politician of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.... , Churchill was assigned to negotiate a treaty in The Hague The Hague
The Hague is the third largest city in the Netherlands after Amsterdam and Rotterdam, with a population of 475,904 and an area of approximately 100 km?.... with the Dutch and Spanish in preparation for war -- this time against France. The young diplomat's essay in international statecraft proved personally successful, bringing him into contact with William, Prince of Orange, who was highly impressed by the shrewdness and courtesy of Churchill's negotiating skills. The assignment had helped Churchill develop a breadth of experience that other mere soldiers were never to achieve, but because of the duplicitous dealings of Charles's secret negotiations with Louis XIV (Charles had no intention of waging war against France), the mission ultimately proved abortive. On his return to England, Churchill was appointed temporary rank of Brigadier-General of Foot, but hopes of promised action on the Continent proved illusory as the warring factions sued for peace and signed the Treaty of Nijmegen.
When Churchill returned to England at the end of 1678 he found grievous changes in English society. The iniquities of the Popish Plot Popish Plot
The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Titus Oates which gripped England in anti-Catholic hysteria from 1678 until 1681. Oates alleged that there existed an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II of England.... (Titus Oates Titus Oates
Titus Oates was a 17th-century perjury who fabricated the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholicism conspiracy to kill Charles II of England.... ' fabricated conspiracy aimed at excluding Exclusion Bill
The Exclusion Bill Crisis ran from 1678 through 1681 in the reign of Charles II of England. The Exclusion Bill sought to exclude the king's brother and heir presumptive, James II of England, from the throne of England because he was Roman Catholic.... the Catholic Duke of York from the English accession), meant temporary banishment for James -- an exile that would last nearly three years. Churchill was obliged to attend his master -- who in due course was permitted to move to Scotland Scotland
conventional_long_name = ScotlandAlba|common_name= Scotland|image_flag = Flag of Scotland.svg|flag_width = 130px... -- but it was not until 1682, after Charles's complete victory over the exclusionists, that the Duke of York was allowed to return to London and Churchill's career could again prosper. For his services to James, Churchill was made Baron Churchill of Eyemouth Eyemouth
Eyemouth is a small town and parish in Berwickshire, in the Scotland Scottish Borders. It is two miles east of the main north-south A1 road and just 8 miles north of Berwick-upon-Tweed.... in the peerage of Scotland Peerage of Scotland
The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the United Kingdom Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. With that year's Act of Union 1707, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England were combined into the Kingdom of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent ti... on 21 December 1682, and the following year appointed colonel of the King's Own Royal Regiment of Dragoons Royal Dragoons
The Royal Dragoons was a Cavalry regiments of the British Army of the British Army. The regiment was formed in 1661, and served until 1969, when it was amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards to form The Blues and Royals.... .
The Churchills now combined income ensured a life of some style and comfort; as well as maintaining their residence in London (staffed with seven servants), they were also able to purchase Holywell House in St Albans St Albans
Saint Albans is a city in southern Hertfordshire, England, around north of central London, which forms the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans.... where their growing family could enjoy the benefits of country life, but they were soon drawn back to court. In July 1683 Colonel Churchill was sent to the Continent to conduct Prince George of Denmark to England for his arranged marriage to the 18-year-old Princess Anne Anne of Great Britain
Anne became Queen of England, Queen of Scots and Kingdom of Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding her brother-in-law, William III of England. Her Roman Catholic father, James II of England, was Glorious Revolution in 1688/9; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III & II and Mary II of England, the only such c... . Anne lost no time in appointing Sarah -- of whom she had been passionately fond since childhood -- one of her Ladies o